The definitive answer to “how much exercise is really enough?” 5



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We know that many Australians are not getting enough exercise, and we know this lack of exercise can exacerbate health problems such as hypertension and arthritis. But how much exercise is really enough?

With so much conflicting information out there, it can be confusing. One thing that isn’t confusing is the link between exercise and your physical and mental well-being, which has been confirmed by study after study over many years.

The right exercise formula

The exact formula for success varies from person to person, but some key elements apply to everyone. Consider the following seven steps:

1. What exercise do you enjoy? Choosing an exercise you enjoy is a great first step. Too many people force themselves into activities like jogging or swimming when it’s the last thing they would rather do. The fact is most people are naturally drawn to certain forms of exercise – if you can find two or three forms of exercise which you enjoy, then that is a perfect starting point.

2. How much exercise can you tolerate? This varies for everybody, but it’s important to discover your exercise tolerance, because it gives you a baseline. Most importantly, try not to worry how your tolerance compares to others. Some people will easily manage a 20 minute jog or a 30 minute walk, but others may only tolerate half this, or less. It doesn’t matter. Once you have chosen some exercises you enjoy, find out how much you can tolerate, without pushing yourself to exhaustion or pain. You will know once you start feeling tired what your basic tolerance is.

3. Stick at it: Once you know what you can tolerate, it’s important to keep it up. Do the exercises at least five times per week. You may need a day or two per week to recover. If you keep it up your tolerance will naturally increase: for example, if your tolerance is 20 minutes of brisk walking then eventually your body will adapt to this and want more. Soon you will be increasing it to 25 and then 30 minutes of brisk walking, and more.

4. Mix the intensities: Ideally you will do a mix of low, medium and high intensity exercise. Low intensity exercise includes walking – ideally everybody should be taking 12,000 steps per day (a fitness tracker can measure your steps for you). Moderate intensity exercise 2-3 times a week is also ideal – think of moderate as pushing yourself to somewhere between 5.5 and 7 out of 10. Moderate exercise may include running, cycling, fast walking or swimming. Finally, research is showing a strong link between short, high intensity exercise and tangible health benefits. High intensity is pushing yourself up to 8.5 out of 10 – not more than that, as this can invite injury. Anyone with a heart condition will need to consult your doctor before starting a high intensity program. But it is achievable for most people, because you are going at 85% of your capacity. The trick is settling on which exercises are best for you – for example, exercise bike, sprints, star jumps etc. There are many options, but I have seen great results with a three minute workout I initially developed for my athletes, which is adaptable for anyone at any level of fitness.

5. Exercise with purpose: To achieve consistency with exercise, it’s best to keep it front of mind. For example, when you go for a walk make it a good pace without stops where possible. The exercise you get from a purposeful walk is much greater than that of a casual walk, for example while window shopping.

6. You shouldn’t be in pain: With exercise, you should always have something left in the tank when you are finished. It’s not about pushing yourself to absolute limits. Pain is a signal that you need to slow down or stop, and can lead to injury. Pain from arthritis is something else and this needs to be managed, hopefully in conjunction with your physio or GP.

7. Everyone is different: Just focus on you and understand what you can achieve, what you enjoy, and stick with it. Remember to avoid comparing yourself with others. Consider engaging a trainer or physio to develop a program with you. Results can happen faster than you think.

Do you exercise enough, or too much?

Kusal Goonewardena

Kusal is a physiotherapist with over 15 years’ experience at treating seniors, families and elite sportspeople. His clinical research has involved finding preventative cures for low back pain. Kusal has authored books including: Low Back Pain – 30 Days to Pain Free; 3 Minute Workouts; and co-authored Natural Healing: Quiet and Calm, all currently available via Wilkinson Publishing. Kusal holds a Masters in Sports Physiotherapy from Latrobe University and a Bachelor in Physiotherapy from the University of Melbourne. Aside from his consulting with the general public via his clinic, Elite Akademy, Kusal works closely with Melbourne University’s Sports Medicine team and works with elite athletes including several Olympians. When not consulting, Kusal is a lecturer, author, consultant and mentor to thousands of physiotherapy students around the world.

  1. Article appears excellent. It does not preach and is aimed at ensuring long term that people have an exercise regime that maximises their health. Would be interesting in reading Kusal’s comments on the options for those who have had a stroke which has compromised their balance. I know from my own experience that high intensity exercise is almost impossible – try starting a sprint and you’re instantly on your face. In my case with a lot of effort I went from not being able to walk at all to people not being able to identify I had had a stroke when I was walking after 2.5 months. Note this did not mean i did not have balance issues while walking – it took about 12 months to be able to look away from where I was walking for extended periods without losing a degree of balance or rapidly veering from my path. However it took around 4 years to get to the stage I could jog.

  2. Good article. Exercise, combined with age-appropriate eating advice is also the answer to ageing well and to maintaining peak brain health and to living well with a dementia diagnosis. I’m a dietitian specialising in ageing and my two books “Eat To Cheat Ageing” and “Eat To Cheat Dementia” cover the science of ageing, brain health and much more in everyday language. Read more at: or

  3. Garmin Fitbit worn on your wrist is great for time keeping, step counter, sleep monitor and may be synchronised with a couple of smartphone apps to download data.
    There are many but I have Connect and My Fitness Pal.
    The fitbit is able to be worn in the shower and is available in several colours and is fun to use and to monitor your caloric intake.

  4. I had problems with my back & I decided I would start walking that was 20 years ago i’am still doing it .i started when I was 45 . I feel low if I don’t walk . Still stepping it out , would loved to have someone to walk with . My hubby passed nearly 2 years ago . It would be nice to have a friend to walk with .

    1 REPLY
    • I agree with you Cheryl, I’m much better if I’ve got someone to work-out with. I slack off otherwise. I belong to a gym and I have a friend who goes too and although we don’t necessarily go at the same time, we talk about the classes and encourage one another. She goes nearly every day, but I’m lucky to get there twice a week as I work 3 days too. At 71 I like to space things out.

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